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Testis Cancer

Unlike other cancers, testis cancer is a disease of the young. It has a very good outcome and is an example of the success of medical science in treating cancers.

The testis is the reproductive organ for the man. Cancer can arise from the reproductive cells. This is the most common form of testis cancer.



Testis cancer usually manifests in young men. This is different from other cancers that are more common with age. Testis cancer is the most common cancer in men 20 to 35 years old.

Am I likely to have testis cancer?
Anything that increases the chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Risk factors for testis cancer include having:

  • An undescended testis.
  • Abnormal development of the testicles.
  • A family history of testicular cancer.
  • One testis at birth

How do I know if I have Testis Cancer?
The most important sign of testis cancer is a painless swelling in the testis.
Other symptoms include:

  • A change in how the testis feels.
  • A dull ache in the lower part of the body or groin.
  • A sudden build-up of fluid in the scrotum.
  • Pain or discomfort in a testis or in the scrotum. 

How is testis cancer detected?
The following tests and procedures may be used to diagnose testis cancer:

  • Physical examination and taking of history by a doctor:
    The testis will be examined to check for lumps, swelling, or pain. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.

  • Ultrasound
    Sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissue of the testis and the echoes analyzed.

  • Blood tumor markers:
    A sample of blood is examined to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by testis cancer. Certain substances are linked to specific types of cancer when found in increased levels in the blood. The following tumor markers are used to detect testis cancer:
      • Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP)
      • Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). 

How is Testis Cancer treated?


Surgery is the most effective treatment and cure for testis cancer in early stages

Radical inguinal orchiectomy and biopsy
This is a procedure to remove the entire testis and its spermatic cord through a wound in the groin. A tissue sample is first taken from the testis and checked for cancer cells. Only when cancer is proven to be present is the testis removed.

Chemotherapy uses toxic drugs to kill any testis cancer cells not removed by surgery.





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